From farmer digitalization to carefully planned and executed development programs, smart agriculture technologies offer solutions to sustainably grow crops and enhance farmers livelihoods around the world. Digital farming is focused on using data-driven insights to guide sustainable food production, which is more productive and enhances farmers livelihoods with scientific methods for food production. New precision farming companies are developing technologies that enable farmers to maximise crop production while controlling each and every variable on their farm, such as moisture levels, pest pressure, soil conditions, and microclimates. Undoubtedly, smart farming and precision farming are taking over the farming industry, but even greater uses for technology are still yet to be seen within the farming ecosystem.
Successfully developing and adopting precision farming technologies on a large scale is still far-off in the future for Indias agricultural sector. The IT-burgeoning industry and the widespread Agri-IT research will lead the way to the adoption of such intelligent agricultural concepts for revolutionizing Indias agricultural industry. With a growing number of technology innovations, it is expected that the agricultural sector will see an enormous transformation, leading to new levels of farming. Agriculture is going through a change — technology is becoming a mandatory component in every commercial farm.
In the past few years, to meet food demands for the unprecedented growth in world population, has forced the agricultural ecosystem towards the adoption of cutting-edge technologies. This trend is true for farms, not just in developed countries, but in developing countries as well, where ICT adoptions (e.g., mobile phone usage, Internet access) are being adopted at a fast rate, and may be game-changers in the future (e.g., in seasonal drought prediction, climate-smart farming). Indeed, multiple multilateral organizations, which have studied other developing countries around the world, have proposed smart agriculture technologies as one of the measures for improving farm productivity. We must start systematically to adopt smart farming technologies, starting with preferably progressive states, where the adoption would be easier.
Achieving the critical mass of adopters needed to build the business case to implement cutting-edge connectedness also will be harder in these regions, where agriculture is more decentralized than North America and Europe. Higher costs to implement the technology on individual farms, as well as limited knowledge and expertise, may pose a major barrier to implementation (12, 13), particularly in developing countries.
It is plausible that the same factors preventing farmers from efficiently managing existing farm records could also be barriers to adoption of precision agriculture. The adoption of precision agriculture could be hindered by producers perceptions that it requires more record-keeping and data management.
It seems ADOPTION of precision agriculture technologies will increase if they can be demonstrated to either mitigate risk or to manage it. Precision Farming (PF) technologies could help to reduce environmental impacts in agriculture, by reducing the use of fertilizer and irrigation, and saving farmers money. Precision agriculture is an integrated crop management system that uses remote sensing (RS), GPS, and geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor the crop fields from the ground level.
Smart agriculture offers a pathway towards sustainable agriculture through the diversification of technologies, crop and livestock production systems, and networks among all actors in the food production industry. Whatever we decide to call smart agriculture and farm systems–smart agriculture orprecision farming, or a few new twists onIndustry 4.0–we are referring to practices that use digital and software technologies to manage the space and time variation in crops grown in order to increase food production efficiency and sustainability. Another emerging issue will be to integrate farmers knowledge and expertise with these new technologies.
If farmers are going to adopt PFN technologies, the partial automation of the machines, as well as non-automation, would seem the more likely options, while the interest for full automation technologies seems very limited among farmers, even those who own larger farms. Farm size and economics of scale appear to play a major role for adoption, since farmers with smaller farms tend to appreciate the benefits of PF technologies less compared with farmers with larger farms.