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From farmer digitalization to carefully planned and executed development programs, smart agriculture technologies offer solutions to sustainably grow crops and enhance farmers livelihoods around the world. In fact, multiple multilateral organizations, which studied other developing countries around the world, suggested smart farming technologies as one of the measures for improving crop productivity. In the Global South, countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Turkey, and South Africa have begun to implement precision farming to manage farms over the past decade. Western European countries started adoption ten years later than the United States, with 68% of their small farms using this technology as well.

The USs small farms, which account for 85% of total farms, use no precision technology. Currently, 15-20% of large farms in the US are using some form of precision technology, such as variable-rate or guided systems. While Information Technology and smart, GPS-guided farming equipment requires Internet access, only 26% of farmers are reported to have access to high-speed Internet in rural areas.

Farm size was noted as a major obstacle for suitability, application, and probable implementation of PA technologies in farms. Farmers were less likely to adopt technologies requiring major changes in existing practices, and were more willing to consider adoption of technologies which could easily be integrated with existing farm management practices. Some farmers demonstrated characteristics that might qualify them as innovative, were specialising in methods of production including ecological agriculture and greenhouse gardening (in addition to arable faming), and were developing closer relationships with those developing technologies (laser soil levelling) to solve agricultural problems.

Innovative farmers who had implemented new technologies in their farms during the preceding 5 years, while showing strong preferences for the status quo, showed especially high ratings of several features of P.F. technologies, such as increased yields and fertilizer savings, and for moderate improvements in water quality and for individual consultation. Information from a farm advisor had a positive effect on the initial adoption of the GSS and RS technologies. The results from the survey thus provided insights on AMS design and potential future uptake, including a need for greater certainty on issues related to technological lock-in (where farmers have difficulties reversing technological investment decisions) and on the forms of post-sales support required (e.g., managing changes in farm systems related to the AMSs use).

Preemption can result in smart technologies being developed without full knowledge of the needs of the markets (farmers) (i.e., uncertainty of consumers) and a lack of attention for after-sales services to assist farmers to integrate technology in the context of their farming systems (i.e., uncertainty of suppliers). This disconnect between much of our farmers knowledge and available formats is a critical barrier for adoption of smart technologies.

Inadequate funding allocation, illiteracy among farmers, a poor safety net, a paucity of microcredit organizations, and a low motivation among farmers to adopt climate-smart and effective technologies are among the reasons behind Indias long-term agricultural slowdown. Successfully developing and adopting precision farming technologies at full scale is still far-off in the future for Indian agricultural sector. The IT-burgeoning industry and the widespread Agri-IT research will lead the way to the adoption of such intelligent agricultural concepts for revolutionizing Indias agricultural industry.

Using smart farming technologies to train farmers on changes in soil composition and water management empowers them to farm more intelligently and at lower risk. Precision agriculture (PF) technologies may help to reduce environmental impacts in farming, by reducing fertilizer usage and watering, and saving farmers money. Digital farming allows them to harness data-driven insights to guide sustainable, climate-smart food production, as well as ensuring higher margins for smallholder farmers. These farmers used a range of current information and communication technologies (ICTs) like precision machinery, Internet of Things (IoT), sensors and actuators, geo-positioning systems, big data, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, drones), robotics, etc., to understand their needs and implement appropriate measures.

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